Keywords : Sensitivity
Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis among Females Attending Private Gynaecological Clinics in Kirkuk Province Using Different Laboratory Methods
Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences,
2013, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 1-8
Background: Trichomonas vaginalis infection is a common sexually transmitted protozoal infection and is associated with several adverse health outcomes, such as preterm birth, delivery of a low–birth weight infant, and facilitation of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. The annual incidence rate in Iraq has been estimated range between 1.33% to 34%. However; there are no data on the prevalence of trichomoniasis among all reproductive-age women. Patients and methods: Total of 161 women from 15- 61 years who participated in the study form 1st October 2011 to 30th September 2012 with collection of vaginal swab specimens after taking consent from each patient. The vaginal fluids extracted from these swabs were evaluated for the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis using direct wet mount preparations, staining, and cultivation on special culture media. Results: Over all, 33 (20.49%) of 161 women were positive for trichomoniasis with 98.12 % of specificity and 100% of accuracy of wet mount preparations technique for parasite detection. Compared to culture methods that show low sensitivity and specificity P< 0.05 .Women aging from 50 years and above and those aging from 20 to 30 years revealed high rate of trichomoniais than other age groups P<0.05. Relationships between Trichomonas vaginalis distribution and color of vaginal discharges, pH, signs, symptoms, residency of women, occupation, height and body weight were statistically significant, greenish vaginal discharge with pH ranging from 4 to 6 reveal more trichomoniaisis mostly associated with high dominancy of burning sensation and vaginal itches, P < 0.05. While thin and short women from urban area and officers, their vaginal discharges examination show high frequency of trichomoniasis in contrast to other women, P<0.05 . Trichomonas coexists were recognized with high rates of Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida albicans in vaginal discharges especially among women aging from 20 to 30 years, P < 0.05. Conclusions: Under clinical examination women with abnormal vaginal discharges, burning sensation and genital itches should be checked for trichomoniasis using high sensitive and specific tests: direct wet amount preparations and fixed slide stained with giemsa stain, in addition to measuring the pH of the vaginal fluid and performing germ tube and whiff test for detecting vaginal thrush and bacterial vaginosis caused by Candida albicans and Gardnerella vaginal respectively.
Evaluation of the Employment of Four Laboratory Diagnostic Methods in Detecting of Giardia lamblia among Children in Kirkuk City
Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences,
2013, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 52-60
Background: Giardiasis is the most common cause of diarrhea among people in Iraq, caused by Giardia lamblia parasite. Laboratory diagnosis requires diversity usage of method to reveal the parasite with in different types of specimens. Aim: The aim of this study were to determine the prevalence of giardiasis in Kirkuk city, to assess the efficacy of four different methods employee in detecting Giardia parasite and an attempt to extract and amplify DNA of this parasite using mixed primers of Giardia assemblages A and B. Material and Methods Cross sectional study was carried on a total of 310 stool samples were collected and tested for giardiasis by using direct microscopy, ELISA-corpo-antigen, Lateral immune-chromatography assay (Triage panel) and PCR technique. Results: The overall rate of parasitic infection was (51.93%); Giardia lamblia rate was (20.32%). Giardiasis among males was higher than in females. Traige panel show high efficacy for detecting Giardia lamblia than detecting of Entamoeba histolytica and cryptosporidium. Statistically the differences among direct microscopy, ELISA and Triage panel were not significant. Application of PCR single step technique show high rate of sensitivity than other methods in detecting giardiasis. Amplified Giardia genome length extended from 280 to 750 bps with mean of 437.6 bps. Conclusions: Giardiasis among peoples in Kirkuk city was high especially among males. Triage panel and ELISA were simple and easy, but were less sensitive than conventional microscopy methods. PCR technique using k 725 gene (Mixed primers of assemblages A1, A2 and B) loci was performed for the first time in Kirkuk city with high sensitivity and specificity than other laboratory methods.