Print ISSN: 2790-0207

Online ISSN: 2790-0215

Keywords : Drugs


Knowledge and Attitude of Mothers Regarding Oral Rehydration Solution in Sulaimani

Jameel Ibrahim Azeez; Adiba Ismaeel Ali; Ibrahim Khasraw Ghafor; Adnan Mohammed Hasan

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2015, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 56-62

Background: Dehydration resulting from diarrhea is a significant cause of death of young children in developing countries. Oral rehydration solution (ORS) is useful to replace fluid and electrolyte loss. 
 Objective: The main objective is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers towards the use of oral rehydration solution in the treatment of acute diarrhea in children. 
Patients and Methods: This observational descriptive study was conducted at the pediatric medical emergency department of the Children‘s hospital and the institute of child health in Sulaimani city for a period of eight months from July 2012 till March 2013. The criteria of inclusion were mothers of children with diarrhea. A total of 200 mothers fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled over the study period. Mothers were interviewed and information collected. A pre designed questionnaire was filled for each case by the investigator which included a detailed history highlighting their demographic data, presenting complaints , treatment given at home, mothers knowledge about ORS and drugs, maternal education, water sources, and socioeconomic history was taken and recorded carefully. All the data entered in SPSS and results were analyzed in percentages. 
Results: A total 200 mothers who visited the Pediatric Teaching Hospital in Sulaimani were interviewed. The median age of children group was 2 years, and minimum was (4 months)and maximum age was 8 years, of these 25(12.5%) were below 1 year, and 160 cases (80%) were between 1 to 5 years, and 15 cases (7.5%) more than 5 years. The most frequent age group was between 1 to 5 years, male were 101 (50.5%) and female were 99 female (49.5%), 58(29%) of mothers education were illiterate, and 105 (52.5%) of mothers education was low, and 37(18.5%) of mothers education was high. Among all the patients 172(86%) were from Sulaimani and 28(14%) from outside Sulaimani. Among all the patients the source of water used was well 103(51.5%), and 63(31.5%) was piped, and 34(17%) was tanks. Out of 200 mothers 199 (99.5%) heard about ORS and 1(0.5%) did not hear about it. Of these mothers 183(91.5%) used ORS. and 17(8.5%) did not use it. Among the mothers that usedORS, 7(3.5%) used it by themselves and 42(21%) were advised by family member and 85(42.5%) were advised by physician and 49(24.5%) were advised by health worker. The way of giving ORS wasby cup and spoonin 139(69.5%), and 44(22%) gaveORS by bottle. Of them 109(54.5%) amount of ORS given adequate amount and 74(37%) gave inadequately. And of them 107(53.5%) prepared ORS correctly and 76(38%) prepared the solution incorrectly. Among all mothers; 172(86%) used drugs and 28(14%) did not use drugs. Among those who use drugs 21(10.5%) used it by themselves and 151(75.5%) got advise by family physician. 
Conclusion: Although most of the mothers knew about ORS and used it at times of need, many had inadequate knowledge on the importance and appropriate use of ORS. 

Epidemiological Data of Drug Abuse in Kirkuk Governorate; A Descriptive Study

Saadoun Dawood Ahmed Al-Jiboori

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2014, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 43-50

Background: Drug abuse is the self-administration of any drug in a manner that diverts from approved medical or social patterns within a given culture. Legal or licit drugs and substances are socially accepted and their use does not constitute any criminal offence. Objective: To determine types of drugs which are abused, to demonstrate the sociodemographic profile of the abusers, the sources of starting drugs consumption and the associated psychiatric disorders among them. Patients and Methods: A descriptive study of (372) patients with drug abuse consisting of (285) males and (87) females. The study was done in Kirkuk city between December 2012 and January 2014. Diagnosis of drug abuse was made according to the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of diseases-Fourth Text Revised (DSM-IVTR). Results: The majority of the patients were singles (56.4%), (83.6%) with the age range of (17-38) years, (64%) were illiterate and primary school educate, (72%) were unemployed, (70%) from urban area. (17%), (16%), (13%), of the patients abused, Tramadol, poly drugs, and Alprazolam respectively. (18%) of the patients were diagnosed anxiety disorders, and (3.7%) of the patients were diagnosed with somatoform. Conclusions: Drug abuse is a growing problem in Iraq. Unaware of medical professional of some drugs with potential risks of abuse, unsupervised prescription and easy access of these drugs, in addition to the characteristic groups of high risks of abuse, such as young males, poorly educated, unemployed, those who were exposed to stressful factors and psychiatric patients. All these need to be addressed by medical, legal and social authorities.