Keywords : HBV
Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences,
2020, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 36-43
Background: The hepatitis B virus [HBV] is an infectious disease and its one of the great public health problem, its outcome depends on the kinetics of the virus-host interaction and specifically on the strength of the innate and adaptive, humoral and cellular immune response. Thus interactions between the virus and the components of immune systems plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. This study aimed to evaluate innate immune response in different clinical courses of HBV infection by estimation serum levels of granulocytemacrophagecolony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), Interleukin-1 (IL-1 ), Interleukin-8 (IL-8 ) , immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgM, IgG and Complement component (C3and C4) levels. Aim of study: to evaluate role of immune response in clinical course of hepatitis B infection Patients and Method: This study based on 78 patients with HBV infection attending the Public Health Laboratories. Their ages ranged from (14-65) years, (58 males and 20 females) compared with 20 healthy subjects (12 males and 8 females) as control group. This study extended from first of January 2015 to first of January 2017. The patients were classified to three groups on the bases of serologic markers (HBsAg, HBe Ag, HBc Ab IgM) according to WHO department of communicable disease surveillances and response, liver function tests which are used as supportive indicator for the liver injury, history of the illness, and full clinical assessment. The first group includes twenty-eight patients with acute HBV infection, second group include twenty cases identified as chronic healthy HBsAg carriers group and the last third group include thirty cases of chronic HBV group Results: By using enzyme immuno assay [ELISA] technique, serum levels of interleukin1alpha [IL-1α], interleukin-8 [IL-8], and granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor [GM-CSF] were measured in all patients compared to that of healthy control group. The mean levels of IL-1α and IL-8 showed a significant increase in serum of patients with newly infected (acute) HBV and chronic HBV compared with studied control group [P=0.04 and P=0.001 respectivel]. However, the mean serum levels for IL-1α and IL-8 recorded a non significant increase in patients with chronic healthy HBsAg carriers [P=0.17 and P=0.4 respectively]. While the mean serum levels of GM-CSF showed a significant rise in acute HBV only [P=0.01]. Moreover, serum immunoglobulins [IgG, IgM, IgA] and complement component [C3, C4] levels also evaluated by using single radial immunodiffusion test (SRID). The mean serum IgA, IgG and IgM levels showed a significant increase in chronic HBV group as compared to that of control group [ P=0.000 ,P=0.000 and P=0.001 respectively].. The mean serum C3 and C4 levels showed a significant lower serum level in all groups compared to control studied group [P=0.000]. Conclusion: this data demonstrate that immunological differences do exist between different clinical groups with HBV infection and may reflect the role of the innate immune system in host defense and disease
Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences,
2015, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 22-28
Introduction: Thalassemia Major is one of the commonest causes of hereditary anemia in Iraq. Patients usually require frequent blood transfusion. This study tried to estimate the problem of transfusion-related infections among β-thalassemia major patients in Kirkuk governorate-Iraq.
Patients and Methods: The study involved 254 multi-transfused thalassemia major patients attending the Thalassemia Center at Kirkuk governorate over twoyears periodstarting from January 2010 to January 2012. Blood samples were tested for HBsAg, anti HCV antibodies, and HIV antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A control group of 150 Thalassemia minor with nearly matched age and sex to thalassemia major patients was included.
Results: Anti-HCV antibody was positive in 85 out of 254 thalassemia major patients (33.5%), while HBsAg was positive in only one out of 254 patients (0.4%). HIV infection was not found in any thalassemia major patients. The rate of positive anti-HCV antibodies was significantly higher in comparison with the control group (P value <0.000) while it was not significant for HBsAg (P value=0.9). Age categorization for thalassemia major patients with positive HCV test shows that more than three quarters of them are above 10 years old.
Conclusion:HCV is the current major problem in multi-transfused children with thalassemia major and more careful pre-transfusion screening of blood for anti-HCV must be introduced in blood bank centers.