Print ISSN: 2790-0207

Online ISSN: 2790-0215

Issue 1,

Issue 1


The Role of Laparoscopy in the Treatment of Patients with Liver Hydatid Cyst in Kirkuk General Hospitals

Hazim Sadeq Ahmed; Isam Abas Alatar; Abdulkarem Omer Mohammed Salih

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2017, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 1-6

Background: Treatment of liver hydatid cystic disease rangse from surgical intervention (laparoscopic or conventional approach) to percutaneous drainage and to medical therapy. Objective: Evaluation the role of laprascopy in the management of liver hydatid disease. Methods: A total of 32 cases with liver hydatid cyst underwent laprasopic management in Kirkuk general hospital from January 2010 to December 2015. Age, sex, duration of surgery, surgical morbidity, and evidence of hydatid cyst recurrence were measured. Results: Laproscopic management done for 918) male (56%) and (14) female (44%) with liver hytatid cyst, with mean age of (35 years). The number of cysts were either single (68.8%) or to maximum 2 cyst (31.2%), with size range (4-14 cm). patients presented with either pain (53.1%), nausea or dyspepsia (9.4%), accidentally found on u/s (9.3%), and jaundice (3.1%). The most common complication was associated with cyst size of ≥ 6 cm: bile leakage (53.1%), peritonitis (3.13%), port site infection (3.13%). Conclusions: laparscopic approach of liver hydatid cyst is a tolerable and safe procedure.

The Effectiveness of Adenosine in Treating the Acute Attacks of Supra-ventricular Tachycardia

Assad Mubarak Jabbar

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2017, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 7-17

Background: Adenosine is a natural adenine nucleoside available endogenously that decreases heart beat by blocking atrioventricular (AV) node transiently so that extend the duration of conduction in (AV) node when injected intravenously. It has a curative value in the conversion of majority of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) to sinus rhythm. In order to evaluate the adenosine in the management of arrhythmias we conduct this study. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravenous adenosine therapy for treatment of (SVT), to determine the optimal adenosine dose effective in (SVT), and to determine the underlying conditions affecting the effective dose. And to evaluate the effectiveness of vagal maneuvers in terminating of spontaneous SVT patients and methods: A cross-sectional study conducts in a group consist of 69 patients ranged from 23-70 years old admitted to the Coronary care unit in Azadi Teaching Hospital ,in Kirkuk city, from July 2014 to June 2016. The diagnosis of (SVT) was made by present of tachycardia which is of narrow complex with a heart beat rate greater than 140 beats/ min by 12 leads chest electrocardiography (ECG). In patients who are hemodynamically stable, vagal maneuvers were carried out initially in the form of carotid sinus massage, gag reflex and Valsalva maneuver, if this failed intravenous administration of adenosine as recommended doses were preformed. If three doses of adenosine boluses were unsuccessful to convert the arrhythmia, patients were managed with other available antiarrythmias or managed with direct electrical cardio version (DC). In unstable patients were managed with (DC). Results: Of 69 included patients, diagnosed as (SVT), M: F ratio was 1:2.1. Their age ranged from 23 years to 70 years with mean age of 57 years. Vagal maneuvers (VM) resulted in restoration of sinus rhythm (SR) in 8patients (7.6%). Out of 57 episodes of (SVT), Adenosine was effective in reverting 51 episodes of SVT to sinus rhythm (89.5%). Of those converted, 18 required a single dose (6mg) (31.6%), fifteen required one additional (12mg) dose (26.3%), and another 18 required two additional doses (81mg) (31.6%).four patients were hemo-dynamically unstable (systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg) which required (DC). Six patients (10.5%) not responding to full adenosine dose(81mg), started treatment with other medication, 1 with verapamil, 4 with amiodarone, and1 with digoxin. All of them were successfully treated. Conclusions: Adenosine is an effective medicine in treating (SVT) in those patients in whom vagal maneuvers has unsuccessful. It demonstrates a high rate of success in terminating acute attack of SVT. A higher dose may be required in majority of patients specially

A comparison between Invasive and Non-Invasive Blood Pressure monitoring for postoperative patients in Cardiac Intensive Care Unit

Othman Ismat Abdulmajeed; Alaa Hussein Ali; Bashar MazinYousif

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2017, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 18-28

Background: Blood pressure monitoring is essential for hemodynamically ill patients in Intensive Care Unit. Invasive measurement from an arterial line is considered as the method of choice in spite of the errors that may occur due to calibration error, movement artifacts and over or under damping. Furthermore, because of the frequent need for continuous and prolonged monitoring of blood pressure for critically ill patient in cardiac intensive care unit, automated noninvasive blood pressure measurements are commonly used. Objective: To compare Invasive with Non Invasive Blood Pressure. And to observe whether femoral and radial arterial lines can be used interchangeably in cardiac intensive care unit. Methods: 70 patients were divided into two equal groups. First group underwent standard femoral artery catheterization for invasive blood pressure monitoring. The second group underwent standard radial artery catheterization for invasive blood pressure monitoring. A cuff was placed in the arm for noninvasive monitoring for all 70 patients. For each patient data were obtained by performing noninvasive blood pressure measurement for 4 times which was at time of admission to intensive care unit (T1), one hour later (T2), two hours later (T3) and three hours after admission (T4). At the same time the invasive blood pressure measurement was recorded for comparison. Results: There were significant differences between diastolic invasive blood pressure measurement obtained from femoral arterial line or radial arterial line with diastolic noninvasive blood pressure measurement. No significant statistical difference in mean arterial pressure between invasive and noninvasive blood pressure was detected. Conclusion: Noninvasive blood pressure measurement alone is insufficient for monitoring of postoperative patients admitted to cardiac intensive care unit after cardiac operation. And femoral or radial arterial line can be used interchangeably for blood pressure monitoring in cardiac intensive care unit.

Outcome of PRK and LASIK for the Initial 100 Cases at Kirkuk City

Faraidoon Fatih Mohammad Ali

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2017, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 29-38

Background: Despite that LASIK showed faster visual recovery after the operation, there was no considerable variation in the visual results between LASIK and PRK with long term- follow up. Aim of study: To assess the outcome of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser (or laser-assisted) in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for the initial 100 cases in the same center at Kirkuk city. Patients and Methods: This clinical study was designed as a prospective, 6-month clinical study. A total 198 eyes of 100 patients entered the study cohort: 141 randomized to LASIK and 57 to PRK. All patients received a one-pass, multizone excimer laser ablation as part of either PRK or LASIK procedure using the Alcon Allegretto excimer laser. The preoperative manifest spherical equivalent ranged from -9.25 diopters (D) to +5.0 D for the LASIK group and -4.50 D to -0.6 D for the PRK group. Results: At 6 months after surgery, 43 (75.4%) and 10 (17.5%) eyes in the PRK group achieved UCVA of 6/6 and 6/12 or better respectively, while after LASIK, 63 (44.6%) and 71 (50.3 %) eyes achieved UCVA of 6/6 and 6/12 or better, respectively. After PRK 56 (98.2%) eyes were within 1.0 D of attempted correction compared to 132 (92.7%) eyes in the LASIK group. At 6 months postoperatively, most of the eyes (85 eyes in the LASIK group and 43 eyes in the PRK group) achieved UCVA line similar to the preoperative BCVA line. No significant complications at operation were seen in any PRK cases. For LASIK-treated eyes, five eyes (3.5%) had intraoperative flap complications, four incomplete flaps and one button hole. All these cases were treated with PRK after one month. All incomplete flap cases got final UCVA of 6/6, while buttonhole flap case achieved final UCVA of 6/18. Conclusions: The essential outcomes of both LASIK and PRK in this study show no significant differences in efficacy at 6-months follow-up. Both LASIK and PRK seems to be relatively effective and safe procedure for myopia and hypermetropia. PRK has the advantage of easier surgery without corneal flap complications, while LASIK offers the advantages of minimal discomfort and faster visual rehabilitation.

Surgical and Audiological Outcomes of Cartilage-Perichondrium Composite Graft Myringoplasty

Bewar Hassan Ali; Said Mustafa Said

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2017, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 39-46

Background: Although temporalis muscle fascia and perichondrium are the commonly used graft materials for the tympanic membrane reconstruction, cartilage-perichondrium graft may be an alternative in obtaining acceptable surgical and audiological outcomes. Aim of study: To evaluate the effectiveness and success of tragal cartilage- perichondrium graft in myringoplasty regarding graft uptake and hearing improvement and to show the effect of patient demographics and perforation site and size on graft uptake rate. Patients and Methods: This prospective study had been carried out on 50 patients who attended the outpatient clinic of otolaryngology, head and neck surgery department, at Rizgary Teaching Hospital in Erbil city/ Iraq during the period of January 2015 to January 2016. All the perforations selected for this study were dry for at least three months and central in type but variable in size. With tragal cartilage as a graft and underlay technique in all cases. Results: Out of 50 patients, 20 were males and 30 were females, their ages range between 12- 49 years with a mean age of 27 years old. Regarding surgical outcome, the overall graft take rate in our study was (86%). In relation to the perforation size; graft take rate in small perforations were (100%), medium-size perforations were (88.9%), large perforations were (85.7%), and subtotal perforations were (75%). In relation to the perforation site; highest graft take rate was in posterior perforations (95.2%) followed by anterior perforation (84.6%) then subtotal perforations (75%). Regarding the functional outcomes, the mean postoperative airbone gap was decreased from 25.63 dB to 13.46 dB with a mean hearing gain of about 12.17 dB. Conclusion: The success rate of cartilage-perichondrium graft in our study was (82%). Best results were obtained in those who were 22-31 years old, in smaller perforations, and in posterior perforations although the p value was statistically not significant. There was significant hearing improvement three months postoperatively.

Management of Placenta Accreta in Patients with Repeated Caesarean Section in Tikrit

Israa Hashim AbidAlkareem

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2017, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 47-52

Background: placenta accreta is still a major cause of obstetric hemorrhage. It is a potentially life-threatening obstetric condition that requires a multi-disciplinary approach to management. The incidence of placenta accreta has increased and seems to parallel the increasing cesarean delivery rate. The diagnosis is occasionally discovered at the time of delivery. In general, the recommended management of suspected placenta accreta is planned cesarean hysterectomy. Recently, some authors have proposed conservative treatmentas an alternative to preserve fertility. However, surgical management of placenta accreta may be individualized. Methods: A, descriptive study was undertaken over a period of 15 months in (Salah Aldin Teaching Hospital. Tikrit. Iraq) of all diagnosed cases of adherent placenta intraoperative. Two alternatives are caesarean section with subsequent immediate hysterectomy, which has traditionally been the treatment of choice or if the patient wishes more children, excision of the placenta site with internal iliac ligation. Results: 34 cases adherent placenta diagnosed introperative were identified. All patients underwent emergency caesarean section. 26 patients had excision of placental site, 8 patient's required obstetric hysterectomywere noted. Conclusion: Placenta accreta can be manged conservatively to preserve fertility

Length of Laparotomy for Suspected Acute Appendicitis in Relation to Body Mass Index

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2017, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 53-63

Background: Acute appendicitis is one the most common clinical presentations that requires urgent surgery, with a lifetime incidence of about (8%), the right lower quadrant incision of open appendecectomy has persisted essentially unchanged since it was pioneered by McBurny in the 9th century. Aim: To evaluate the effect of trunkal obesity and BMI on the length of the incision of appendecectomy. Patients and Methods: A prospective analysis including 199 patients who suspected to have acute appendicitis (A.A), during time period of 9 months (from first of July 2012 to first of April 2013) who were arrived at casualty department of Azadi Teaching Hospital in Kirkuk city, Iraq. After dicision of surgical intervention; each patient was interviewed by senior house officer to complete a questionnaire which was including demographic data: age, gender and clinical data including weight in (kg) height in (meter), (BMI) (classification of WHO) as shown in table (2), history of previous operation or previous attack of the pain, abdominal girth in supine and standing positionwhich is normal for female and male is between 88 and 94 cm respectively and abdominal torso or abdominal height (distance between xiphoid and symphysis pubis) were measured (normal range 30- 45cm for obese and 14-27cm for thin patient). Results: Majority (63%) of the patient were in 2nd and 3rd decade of age with mean age was 29 year, ranging from 10-70 years, on gender aspect, majority were females (58.8%), with female to male ration of 1.4:1. About half of the patient were underweight or normal weight while one third of the patient were overweight, and remaining were obese with one patient (0.5%) was morbidly obese, the length of the incisions length were from (3-11cm) with mean length of incision was 5.9cm. Conclusions: BMI is significantly related to the length of appendectomy incision, the overweight or obese one needs alonger incision in comparison to normal range or underweight patients.

Re-vised Wayne′s Thyrotoxicosis Diagnostic Index for Clinical Diagnosis of Hyperthyroidism

Abdulmanaf Ahmed Mohammed; Hijran Kamal Salih

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2017, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 64-72

Background: Thyrotoxicosis denotes thyroid hormone excess from any cause. Hyperthyroidism specifically refers to endogenous thyroid gland over-activity most commonly caused by grave′s disease, toxic multi-nodular goiter, or toxic adenoma. Signs and symptoms vary between people and during pregnancy. This study attempt to help our hyperthyroid patients to circumvent the cost of thyroid function tests, a relatively heavy financial burden for the average Iraqi citizen now a days, also when thyroid function tests results are at variance with clinical suspicion. Aim: To design a protocol for clinical diagnosis of hyperthyroidism utilizing the Wayne′s Thyrotoxicosis Diagnostic Index (WTDI) as a base line. Material and Methods: This study was conducted on 100 thyrotoxic patients diagnosed by hormonal assay and 100 clinically euthyroid subjects of similar sex and age, attending Kirkuk General Hospital and private clinic over a period of two years from June 2012 -- June 2014 .We took a history and physical examination pertinent to hyperthyroidism for each patient and each subject including all component of the WTDI .The main outcome measures obtained both patients and subjects measured using sensitivity, specificity ,and predictive values of each symptom and sign. The WTDI was utilized for assessing the clinical findings of patient and subject. Result: Two symptoms and ten physical signs, including two new signs that were not part of WTDI-the velvety skin and the wide pulse pressure, attained confirmatory value in ruling -in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. Two symptoms and four signs did attain a confirmatory value in ruling - out diagnosis when absent. Both hot hands and tachycardia reached rule-in and rule -out states. 95 of the 100 patients entered the thyrotoxicosis zone of the WTDI by attaining more than or equal to 19 points. By offering two points and one point to the velvety skin and the wide pulse pressure respectively, all the 100 patients attained more than or equal to 19 points. The highest score attained by any of the 100 subjects was 14 points; the mentioned addition would at most bring the highest score among subjects to 17 points; less than the diagnostic score of WTDI. Conclusions: WTDI with minor modification is worth adopting for diagnosing thyrotoxicosis and on follow up re-assessment of patient during medical treatment when a patient could not bear the cost of the thyroid function tests with the possible exception of some patients like pregnant women who may need a more elaborated evaluation.

Epistaxis; Review of Causes and Management in Kirkuk City

Saman Fadhil Jamal; Ali Kamal Ali

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2017, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 73-83

Background: Epistaxis, or bleeding from the nose, is a common complaint. It is rarely life threatening but may cause significant concern. Most nose bleeds are benign, self-limiting, and spontaneous, but some can be recurrent. Many uncommon causes are also noted. Causes of epistaxis involve; local causes a systemic causes. Management options include; medical treatment, nasal packing, cautery (chemical and electrical), embolization, arterial ligation and surgery. Objectives: To determine the causes of epistaxis in different sexes and different age groups and to know the ways of management of epistaxis in these cases. Patients and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at Azadi teaching hospital and Kirkuk General Hospital in Kirkuk city from (5/1/2014 to9/3 /2015).The total number of 200 cases chosen randomly and the data was collected by interviewing with the patients in the hospital by a special questionnaire contained following questions: Name, age, sex , occupation , date , duration of the bleeding , cause of the bleeding , site of the bleeding and treatment method where we tried a simple handmade posterior pack for those cases of posterior bleeding . Results and discussion: The overall result of our study which included 200 cases (116 males and 84 females) (56%) of the patients who had epistaxis were due to idiopathic causes, inflammatory reaction: (12%), trauma to nose: (10%), hypertension: (6.5%), hereditary haemorrhagic talangiectasia: (3%), nasal tumor: (2.5%), nose picking: (2%), drugs (aspirin): (2%), hemophilia: (1%), renal failure: (1%),Von willebrand disease: (0.5%). Conclusion and Recommendation: Epistaxis occurs due to different local and systemic causes and it affects all age groups and both sexes, with males more than females. Nonsurgical treatment is still useful to arrest nasal bleeding, safe and cost effective and a handmade balloon from simple available hospital materials proved to be very effective in controlling epistaxis especially posterior bleeding.. Epistaxes don't have risk on life, but should not be neglected especially in case of recurrent bleeding, and patients should visit doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Role of Magnesium plus Selenium in Management of Viral Pneumonia in Asthmatic Child

Baha Dia Moohee Alosy

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2017, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 84-89

Background: Magnesium control different enzyme and is smooth muscle relaxation at the bronchia. Infection decrease selenium level which are of significance since of relationship among selenium and immunity. Objective: Assess role of magnesium plus selenium in management of viral pneumonia in asthmatic child. Material and Methods: 300 Asthmatics Child under 15 year present with viral pneumonia record in a period of 56 month starting from April 2009 to April 2014, Sub classified as 150 Asthmatics Child magnesium plus selenium group and 150 Asthmatics Child control. Magnesium 200mg plus selenium (tab) 200mcg were schedule to receive magnesium plus selenium single dose per day for 7 days While control (supportive) group received supportive treatment. Results: The estimates of magnesium plus selenium (tab) group significant improvement in heart rate (P= 0.001), rapid respiration (P=0.003), hs-CRP (P = 0.001), ESR (P =0.005), Radiological (P = 0.003), serum interleukin-2 receptor (P = 0.0002). Less than in control. Conclusions: This study indicates benefit of magnesium plus selenium supplementation in management of viral pneumonia in asthmatic child

Brain Computerized Tomography Scans Findings in Children with Cerebral Palsy

Israa Mohammed Sadiq; Saman Anwer Nooruldeen

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2017, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 90-98

dnuorgkcaB: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a major cause of the disability in children. It is considered a neurological disease occurs due to a non-progressive brain injury or anomaly that occurs while the brain is developing. Intracranial imaging provides a window to see the brain lesion and potentially, provide an insight into the pathogenesis of CP. Objectives: To reveal the radiological changes of brain using CT scan in different clinical types of CP and in those CP children with functional impairments. Material and methods: Sixty eight children with previous diagnosis of cerebral palsy were scanned with computed tomography (Philips, brilliance 64) for brain without contrast at Azadi Teaching Hospital/Kirkuk city, from February 2013 to July 2016. Clinical information was obtained from the documentation of pediatricians. The images were reviewed by two board certificate radiologists with at least 6 years of experience. Result: Sixty-eight patients were included in the study, 42(61.8%) females and 26(38.2%) males with female to male ratio 1.6:1and an overall mean age at presentation was 12 months. Most (79.3%) children with cerebral palsy had abnormal neuro-radiological findings, Diffuse brain atrophy predominantly involving the cortical –subcortical grey matter with and without white matter hypodensities which indicate grey matter injury (35.4%) was the most common finding and it was more in the pyramidal CP (100%), followed by white matter atrophy and hyposensitizes with or without ventriculomegaly indicating white matter injury in (23.5%) which was the most common CT finding in cerebellar CP (50%), congenital malformations found in (8.8%) including pachygyria, and Dandy-Walker malformation, entirely seen in quadriplegic type, focal vascular brain insult seen in (5.9%) occurred only in diplegic type, and the least was ventriculomegaly labeled as miscellaneous (2.9%) occurred only in quadriplegic CP. CT scan was normal in (20.7%), predominantly in cerebellar type. There were significantly more patients with abnormal CT findings among CP children suffering from convulsion (p>0.05) than those without convulsion, this was not true in those with microcephaly (p<0.05). Conclusion: CT scan brain is a good modality for detection of structural brain abnormality in cerebral palsy (CP) cases. There was significant correlation between the topographic distribution of motor deficit and brain CT findings. There were significantly more patients with abnormal CT findings among CP children suffering from convulsion but not microcephaly

Educational' Assessment of Medical Ethics Education Course at the College of Medicine/ University of Mosul

Nadia Hazim Saeed; Asmaa Ahmed Al-jawadi

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2017, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 99-106

Introduction: Medical Ethics (MEs) education in the College of Medicine/ University of Mosul was very traditional in the form of theoretical lectures with no clinical integration or practical ethics training for the students. Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess students' knowledge about the current MEs teaching at College of Medicine/ University of Mosul. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted in College of Medicine/ University of Mosul during the academic year 2013-2014. Across-sectional study design was adopted with a standardized self-administered questionnaire form distributed to 6th class undergraduate medical students. Results: The overall satisfaction for MEs course assessment questionnaire in the present study was (35.5%). According to the results about one fifth (22%) and less than one third (28.8%) of the students only supposed that MEs course they received had helped them to develop their problem solving skill and sharpened their analytic skills consequently. On the other hand, (72.9%) thought that there are no difficulties of getting through the course by just working hard around the examination, and (49.2%) assumed that feedback on students work was usually provided in the form of marks and grades. Their preference to teaching and assessment methods in the present study revealed in general no significant agreement on a single best method. Conclusions: Medical Students exposed their unsatisfaction regarding MEs course that they have been received. Actions regarding reviewing and reforming of the current MEs teaching became crucial which satisfy students' needs and the contemporary requirements of medical students' graduation.

Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on plasma glucose level

Dlawer Abdul Hameed Ahmed Al Jaff

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2017, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 107-111

Background: Ginkgo biloba extract the most popular traditional natural herbal product has been widely used for may clinical purposes including treatment of cerebral insufficiency, cognitive impairment, dementia, peripheral vascular disease, premenstrual syndrome, schizophrenia, tinnitus, and vertigo. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of single oral dose on plasma glucose level. Material and methods: The effect of ginkgo biloba extract on plasma glucose level after sucrose load in non diabetic healthy volunteer were investigated on one hundred fifty healthy volunteer randomly divided into two equal groups. Group I was administered one gram per kg glucose; groups II was administered one gram per kg glucose and 240 mg Ginkgo biloba extract. Blood samples were collected from each volunteer before and 15, 30, 60,120, 180 post ingestion of glucose for separating the plasma, which was utilized for the determination of plasma glucose levels. Results: The result show considerable decrease in plasma glucose in 60 and 120 mint and also considerable decrease in AUC (p value <0, 05) due to use of Ginkgobiloba extract. Conclusion: The Ginkgo biloba extract attenuate the plasma glucose level after sucrose load and may be promising treatment of diabetes as adjuvant therapy.

Moderate and Major Saddle Nose; the Causes and Correction

Salim Hussain Ibrahim

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2017, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 112-120

Back ground: Saddle nose deformity is of different types and classifications, and there are several surgical approaches and grafting materials selected by the surgeons for the correction. Objective: Study the causes, surgical steps, and outcomes of correction of moderate and major saddle nose by the author using autologous iliac crest bone graft. Patients and method: A retrospective case study of 34 patients, with saddle nose, corrected by dorsal onlay graft and columella strut harvested from autologous iliac crest bone via endo-nasal approach rhinoplasty, at Salah-Elden governorate during period from Jan. 2008- Dec. 2015. Results: The common cause of saddle nose was septal abscess 16 patients (47%), nasal trauma 7 patients (20.6%), then congenital and iatrogenic causes. The cosmetic results all 34 patients (100%) get good results and satisfied for the patient‟s and the surgeon, with follow-up surgeon satisfaction were in 32 patients (94%). Functional improvement was (94.7%). Conclusions: 1.Autologous iliac crest bone graft is good graft material for augmentation of saddle nose deformity. 2. Optimum cosmetic outcomes achieved by doing osteotomies and in fracture of nasal bones, tip plasty, and alar base resection.3. The procedure used for graft taken from iliac crest bone is relatively safe with low complications.

Prevalence of Personality Disorders among Female Sentenced Prisoners in Erbil Adult Reformatory Prison

Asmaa Ghanim Hussein; Ahmed Ali Rasool

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2017, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 121-129

Background: Personality Disorder is “an enduring pattern of inner experiences and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual‟s culture. Aim of the study: To determine the prevalence rate of personality disorders among female sentenced prisoners and its correlation between socio-demographic and crime characteristics with the types of personality disorders of the study population. Patients and Methods: Quantitative, descriptive study was conducted in Erbil Adult Reformatory Prison in Erbil City in Iraq, from October 2014 to August 2015. The study population included 26 adult females .The Questionnaire was consisting of three parts; the first part included sociodemographic characteristics of female sentenced prisoners, the second part contain the crime characteristics, and the third part was composed of a standardized questionnaire which is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, that consists of three clusters A, B, and C of personality disorders. Correlation coefficient r-test was calculated for obtaining the reliability of the questionnaire and the content validity was determined through 10 experts. Results: Showed that most of the study sample was in the age group between 18-27 years old. Majority of the samples were illiterate, married, house wife and from urban area. Theft was the most common crime. The highest prevalence of personality disorders was the schizoid personality disorder. Conclusions: All types of personality disorders have a non-significant relationship with the sociodemographic characteristics of age, education, marital status, and with crime characteristics of study sample.

Study of Hematological Profile in Healthy Pregnant and NonPregnant Women in Erbil City

Feedan Tahseeen Muhammed Halmi; Ahang Ali Ahmad; Runak Ali Ismaiel; Sahar Muhammad Zaki Abdullah; Samir Mahmood Othman Othman

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2017, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 130-140

Background and objective: Pregnancy is characterized by profound changes in almost every organ system to accommodate the demands of the fetoplacental unit. Hematologic system is one of these systems and should adapt in a number of ways. This study, attempted to assess the effect of pregnancy on the hematological indices and compare these indices at different stages of pregnancy with non- pregnant women. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in different medical health centers in Erbil, Iraq from 1 st April 2016 to 31st January 2017. (139) apparently healthy pregnant women aged from (16-46) years, were recruited into the study as a case group, and (104) healthy non pregnant aged from (19-46) years as a control group. Venous blood was collected from each subject. Complete blood count was estimated by automated hematological analyzer. Results: Study group showed statistical difference in RBC count, hematocrit, MCH, WBC count, monocyte %, granulocyte % and platelet count at (p< 0.0.5) between pregnant and non pregnant women. Significant differences were observed in some of the hematological parameters among the three TMs. Conclusion: Normal pregnancy can alter hematological indices and also affected by different pregnancy stages.